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TopoText allows teachers, researchers, or publishers to evaluate the points of reading difficulty within their educational texts, by keeping track of word-by-word disfluencies during oral reading.

By tagging the points in the text where readers stumble, a "topography" of errors can be generated which serves as a kind of "flashlight", illuminating points of difficulty in the text.


Topotext allows for much freedom in the way that fluency behaviors are tagged. Users are free to define their own tags and customize how they are displayed on the screen. The following topograph shows an implementation with five disfluency types:

  • 1. SLO=Deceleration
  • 2. PAU=Pause
  • 3. HES=Hesitation
  • 4. CMP=Compound Error
  • 5. REP=Repetition

In addition to freedom in selection of what to tag, TopoText also provides various levels of detail in the output display. The following shows the overall prevelance for each individual tag across the text (coloured lines) as well as the total number of disfluencies (regardless of type), shown by the brown coloured shading.

TopoText is a project under development. If you would like more information about how to use TopoText, please see the online help pages . If you would like information on the status of development, or would like to contribute to the project, please contact us.